Inca Trail

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::: CuscoWeb.com Cusco Info Inca Trail
From the Warmiwañuska pass starts a descent through a rough path around which it is possible to perceive the slow formation of a stream that in the bottom of the small valley is named Pakaymayu (Hidden River). By the bottom of the valley the trail is visible without reaching the thick vegetation; this is another of the recommended campsites, over 3600 mts. (11800 ft.).
By the middle of the descent and on the left side there is another genuine ancient paved trail that follows almost horizontally on the mountainside surpassing another pass to go down then into the Aobamba Valley; it is necessary to follow an abandoned trail and further away towards the right hand is Sayaqmarka. That last way is not recommendable because the trail is abandoned and in some sectors it disappeared by the effect of natural erosion; it is not used and it has no maintenance, thus it offers many dangers.
From the campsite in Pakaymayu starts another climb towards Runkuraqay; this time the hike is over a trail paved with flagstones that offers a lot of safety specially in rainy days. Runkuraqay is by the middle of the way up and has an ovoid shape; possibly the name with which it was baptized by one of Bingham's native guides in 1915 was "Runturaqay" (Egg-shaped Inclosure).
The walls of its buildings are of the "pirka" type. Because of its location and the layout of its rooms, it seems that it served as a "tambo" (lodge for travelers); this is another possible campsite. Continuing the climb through the cobbled stairway, on the trail's left side there is a very small lagoon called Yanaqocha ("Black Lake"), on the right side and on an upper level is another one having the same size
. In this zone occasionally it is possible to see Guemals or Tarucas (Hippocamelus antisensis) that come down in order to drink water, and Mountain Vizcachas (Lagidium Peruvianum). Inside the Machupicchu Historic Sanctuary it is also possible to find species such as the Puma or Mountain Lion (Felis concolor), Andean Cats (Felis jacovita), Ocelots (Felis pardalis), Hog-nosed Skunks (Conepatus rex), South-American Foxes (Dusicyon culpaeus), White Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), Tanka or Dwarf Brocket Deer (Mazama Chunyi) -endangered specie-, Weasels (Mustela frenata), Pudus (Pudu mephistophiles), Tayras (Eyra barbara), Amazon Otters (Luthra incarum), Spectacled Bears (Tremarctos ornatus) -endangered specie-; among the main birds are the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus), K'illichu or Sparrow Hawk (Falco sparverius), Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis), Torrents Duck (Merganetta arnata), Cu-cu (Momotus momota), Quien-quien (Cyanocorax inca), Cuvier's Toucan (Ramphastos cuvieri), Chiguanco (Turdus chiguanco), Razor-billed Curassow (Crax mitu), Chinalinda (Phalacoboenus albogularis), Andean Gull (Larus serranus), Yanavico (Plegadis ridwayi), Cock of the Rock (Rupicola Peruviana) -endangered specie-. More over, there are vipers, lizards, diverse amphibious, butterflies and insects, etc., etc. If you decide to go into the undisturbed forest, far away from the trail, be aware of some dangers like finding lethal snakes such as the bushmaster (Lachesis muta) or the viperine fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox) which possesses a virulent venom that is destructive of tissue destroying blood cells and mucous membranes as well.
At the end of the climb is the second highest spot named Runkuraqay Pass, over 3900 mts. (12800 ft.). From this pass starts another steep descent towards Sayaqmarka. By the middle of the way down, and on the right side there is another interesting green colored lagoon having a lot of algae, it is known as Q'omer-qocha (Green Lake).
Sayaqmarka is an archaeological group located over 3500 mts. (11500 ft.) and was explored by Bingham's expedition in 1915 which native guides named it "Cedrobamba" ("Cedropanpa" = Plain of cedars). By the end of 1941 a Viking Fund expedition headed by Paul Fejos explored the area and rebaptized it as "Sayaqmarka" (Steep Spot) considering its geographic location almost by the end of a mountain spur that dominates visually the Aobamba valley.
In this complex there are different constructions that are somewhat intricate because of having been adapted to the rough mountain shape; in spite of the difficult environment there is also an aqueduct capriciously carved on the mountain crest, fountains that seem to have had a ritual purpose, narrow streets, a semi-ovoid dominant building, etc. Because of the area where it is located, this site must had a duty almost strictly administrative and ceremonial; perhaps for management of the territory and the nearby roads. Thus, it is possible that it could have been inhabited by soldiers, state officials, and priests, who were not farmers as there are no farmlands around. Normally this site has little maintenance, therefore, occasionally one may encounter vipers or some other animals; more over, around here there are almost always large amounts of very small biting mosquitoes called "manta blanca" (white blanket) that are almost invisible but they exist by the millions and have good resistance against repellents. This is another place that serves as campsite. Near Sayaqmarka, on the right side of the trail there is another building that must had a close relationship with the "Steep Spot", it is Qonchamarka (Cooking Stove Spot) which is also built with "pirka" type walls, its original duty is unknown.
From Sayaqmarka departs a somewhat abrupt trail towards Machupicchu, and very few kilometers away is a short humid and swampy plain named Chakilqocha (it should be "Ch'aki Qocha" = Dry Lake) that is often used as a campsite. Farther away, continuing on the trail carefully paved with flagstones, there is a wide and comfortable tunnel carved in the mountain rock; it is about 20 mts. (66 ft.) long and has carved steps, walls and floor. Advancing through the comfortable trail the traveler gains altitude in order to get to Phuyupatamarka that is found over 3680 mts. (12070 ft.). Likewise, that archaeological group was "discovered" by Bingham in 1915 who named it as "Qoriwayrachina". But, in 1941 Paul Fejos and his expedition rebaptized the site with the name of "Phuyupatamarka" (Spot over the clouds), because it is almost always over the clouds and mist formed in the valleys around. It is placed in a space that dominates visually a broad territory and must have been an important religious and administrative core. Its features include a superior almost ovoid platform, aligned fountains that must had a religious duty with well-disposed channels and water that is still flowing; very well carved stairways, rough wall constructions, terraces, etc. From this spot there are two trails in order to go down to Wiñaywayna; one of them is projected almost horizontally towards the west and then it descends abruptly to the next archaeological group (this trail reaches also "Wayraqpunku" -Windy Doorway- on a mountain pass, where there was a project in order to build a modern hotel); that way is not used any more because of the dangerous descent. The other trail, cleared up in 1983 goes down from the western end of this site, this one is a flight having so many and very well built steps by the middle of the thick forest where there is also another small tunnel carved in the rock; by the end of this Inkan path there is another dusty and zigzagging one built by those who raised the electricity towers by the 1960s. Even lower is the Wiñaywayna Visitors Center consisting in a group of concrete and red roof buildings, that offers basic lodging and eating facilities; however, it is possible to camp around here. Towards this center's southeast is the Archaeological Group of the same name that is practically hung over the Urubamba canyon.
Wiñaywayna is an important archaeological group near Machupicchu, over an altitude of 2700 mts. (8860 ft.). It was found by Paul Fejos in 1941, and subsequently in 1942 the Peruvian scholar Julio C. Tello baptized the site as "Wiñaywayna" (Forever Young) after the Quechua name of an orchid specie (Epidendrum crassilabium). The Epidendrum genus has here about 20 species of white, red, yellow or violet beautiful flowers that are abundant in the zone; another very common genus is Pleurothalis. In Wiñaywayna there are diverse buildings among which is an upper semicircular one that is traditionally known as the "palace" or the "tower", built partially with carved stones. Towards the right side of the descending stairway there is a range of 10 successive ritual fountains that are classical in every important settlement. Towards the north is the farming sector with a large amount of artificial terraces; lower are some other buildings on the precipice's edge with "pirka" type walls from where there is a nice view of the mountains' lower part and the valley. Toward the northeast of Wiñaywayna and in an upper level is Intipata (Spot of the Sun); an archaeological site formed mainly by agricultural terraces. Down, in the valley's bottom, on Km. 107 of the railway Qosqo-Quillabamba is the dam for the Machupicchu Hydroelectric Power Plant, constructed between 1958 to 1962. From that dam there are a couple of 3 Km. long tunnels drilled in the Machupicchu granite mountain; they carry the water of the Urubamba River to the other side of the mountain in the San Miguel sector. Taking advantage of the difference in altitude the water is transformed in 110,000 KW of electric power, for the Qosqo and Puno departments. Near the dam is the Archaeological Group of Choquesuysuy (Gold-ore Sifter) that includes some few buildings and farming terraces.
The last tract of the hike from Wiñaywayna is through an impressive somewhat horizontal trail, carved in the mountain face in which on the right side there are deep precipices. Almost by the end of the relatively flat trail there is a stairway arising in order to finally get to Intipunku (Sun Gate), located on the pass over an altitude of 2650 mts. (8700 ft.). From Intipunku you will get for the first time a panoramic view of Machupicchu. In the Inkan Society this must have been something like a watchtower and customhouse in order to enable checking those wanting to enter Machupicchu, as well as for its protection.

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Tipon
Pikillaqta
Raqchi
Pisac
Ollantaytambo
Maras
Chinchero
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Colonial Remains
Church and Monastery of Santa Catalina
Church and Convent of Merced
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Trail to Machupicchu
Inca Trail 01
Inca Trail 02
Machupicchu
Ecological Reserves
Manu National Park

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